There are five major dimensions to be consistent components of personality. The Big Five personality dimensions are conscientiousness, extroversion/introversion, and openness to experience, emotional stability, and agreeableness. Conscientiousness – defined as being reliable and dependable, being careful and organized, and being a person who plans – is the dimension most strongly correlated to job performance. Extroversion/introversion refers to the degree to which a person is sociable, talkative, assertive, active, and ambitious. Openness to experience is the degree to which someone is imaginative, broad-minded, curious, and seeks new experiences. Emotional stability is the degree to which someone is anxious, depressed, angry, and insecure. Agreeableness refers to the degree to which a person is courteous, likable, good-natured, and flexible. Managers must remember that the relevance of any personality dimension depends on the situation, the type of job, and the level at which a person is working. Four personality traits that have been consistently related to work-related behaviour are locus of control, Type-A behaviour, self-monitoring, and Machiavellianism. Locus of control indicates an individual’s sense of control over his/her life, the environment, and external events. Those with an internal locus of control believe that their actions affect what happens to them, while those with an external locus of control believe that outside factors affect what happens to them. People who exhibit Type-behaviour try to do more in less and less time in an apparently tireless pursuit of everything. Type-A people feel great time urgency, are very competitive, try to do many things at once, and are hostile. Selfmonitoring, the fourth personality trait is the degree to which people are capable of reading and using cues from the environment to determine their own behaviour. Strong selfmonitoring skills can help managers and employees read environmental and individual cues quickly and accurately and adjust behaviour accordingly. People with elements of a Machiavellian personality put self-interest above the group’s interests and manipulate others for personal gain.


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