Biophotonics is an emerging area of scientific research, which denotes a combination of biology and photonics. Biophotonics applies photonics to the fields of medicine, biology and biotechnology. Biophotonics is used in Biology to study and probe for molecular mechanisms, function of proteins, DNA and other important molecules. It is used in Medicine to study tissue and blood at the macro (large-scale) and micro (very small scale) organism level to detect, diagnose and treat diseases in a way that are non-invasive to the body. In the present paper recent advances in the field of application of biophotonics in biology and medicine will be discussed. Main focus will be on new laser microscopes that allow measurements of single molecules and tissues at unprecedented resolutions, new light-activated chemicals that can be used to weld tissues for surgical applications and to label important proteins, widely tunable ultrafast laser sources, which provide access to molecular dynamics and structure, Optical coherence tomography, which allows visualization of tissues and organs and FRET (Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer) which has become one of the most widely used techniques in the field of biophotonics, giving scientists the chance to investigate sub-cellular environments.